In view of the different environments in which photovoltaic modules are used, special designs are required. For example, if the modules are used in coastal or island areas, the modules need to be resistant to salt spray and corrosion. For agricultural areas, the modules need to be resistant to ammonia corrosion; for areas with high ultraviolet intensity such as Tibet and Gansu, the ultraviolet radiation resistance of photovoltaic modules needs to meet the standards; for solar smart doors and windows, solar pavilions, photovoltaic agricultural greenhouses, photovoltaics For applications such as glass building ceilings and photovoltaic glass curtain walls, the light transmittance and mechanical strength of photovoltaic modules also need to meet the relevant standards of building materials.
Different use environments put forward different design requirements for photovoltaic modules. Here, the marine use environment is taken as an example to illustrate the design points of photovoltaic modules.
Currently, photovoltaic modules are widely used for power generation on islands and marine ships. The island is far away from the continental shelf, and can only rely on wind and solar power; ships have sailed in the ocean for a long time, but the ocean environment is relatively harsh, and the requirements for solar photovoltaic modules are relatively high. First of all, the salinity of seawater is large, and its main components are chloride and sulfate. The salt content of seawater is usually more than 35%. Secondly, the air humidity on the sea is relatively high, so the salt corrosion resistance of photovoltaic modules is particularly high. In addition, the humid environment on the sea is likely to cause moisture to enter the interior of the module and cause damage. This requires that in the production process of photovoltaic modules, it is necessary to select materials such as the salt-resistant aluminum frame of photovoltaic modules and the junction box of the outer shell, and even reduce the use of aluminum alloy frames containing metal components in the design process. Then it is to do a good job of sealing the photovoltaic modules, such as considering the use of silicone rubber sealing frame sealing and so on. Finally, a salt spray test is strictly carried out to check whether the salt spray corrosion resistance of photovoltaic modules meets the design requirements. Under normal circumstances, when the salt spray test is performed on photovoltaic modules in the laboratory, the pH of the salt solution is 6. 5~7.2 (35 ±2°C). When the key components are tested, the process of the 96-hour salt spray test In normal conditions, the service life is 10 years, but under normal circumstances, the service life of photovoltaic modules is 25 years, so it is necessary to break through the salt corrosion resistance of solar photovoltaic modules in special environments, which has become a technical problem that must be overcome. .
The design of photovoltaic modules needs to take into account the performance and cost of the modules to optimize the cost performance of the modules.
The unit of cost performance of conventional components is: cost/power (USD/W).
(1) With a certain number of cells and a certain size of the components, as the power of the cells increases, the cost performance of the components increases.
(2) The cell type is fixed, and the number of cells is irregular. As the size of the component increases, the cost performance increases.
(3) For the single crystal module and the polycrystalline module, when the size and power are the same, the cost performance of the polycrystalline module is higher than that of the single crystal module (USD/W).